Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American author and journalist. He was born on July 21, 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois, where he was raised. He died on July 2, 1961 in Ketchum, Idaho, where he committed suicide.
Hemingway's economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, six short story collections, and two non-fiction works. Three novels, four collections of short stories, and three non-fiction works were published posthumously.
After finishing high school, Hemingway reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star, before leaving for the Italian front to enlist with the World War I ambulance drivers where he was wounded in 1918 and returned home. Hemingway's experiences in wartime formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms. In 1922, he married Hadley Richardson, the first of his four wives. The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent, and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s "Lost Generation" expatriate community. The Sun Also Rises, Hemingway's first novel, was published in 1926.
Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer after his 1927 divorce from Hadley Richardson. However this marriage was also unsuccessful and the couple divorced after Hemingway returned from the Spanish Civil War where he had been a journalist. Drawing from his experience in the Spanish Civil War, Hemingway published For Whom the Bell Tolls. He married his third wife, Martha Gellhorn in 1940. They separated when he met Mary Welsh in London during World War II.
Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea, one of his masterpieces, in 1952, Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in two successive plane crashes that left him in pain or ill health for much of the rest of his life. Hemingway had permanent residences in Key West, Florida, and Cuba during the 1930s and 1940s, but in 1959 he moved from Cuba to Ketchum, Idaho, where he put an end to his life in the summer of 1961.